Adolf Harnack viewed the formation of the Christian canon as a mixed blessing. He was concerned about the exclusion of some early documents as well as the risks involved with Christianity becoming a religion of the book. This volume engages these concerns and others with scholarly creativity. Among other topics, Harnack examines reasons for the inclusion of four gospels in the New Testament rather than one. He concludes that the selection was a compromise between dominant churches, each invested in a particular gospel. This is classic Harnack and a true picture of the thought and mind of the last great 19th century theologian.